A 58k text-only version is available for download. But many as their falsehoods were, there was one of them which quite amazed me; - I mean when they told you to be upon your guard, and not to let yourselves be deceived by the force of my eloquence.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Chemistry and society For the first two-thirds of the 20th century, chemistry was seen by many as the science of the future. The potential of chemical products for enriching society appeared to be unlimited.
Increasingly, however, and especially in the public mind, the negative aspects of chemistry have come to the fore. Disposal of chemical by-products at waste-disposal sites of limited capacity has resulted in environmental and health problems of enormous concern.
The legitimate use of drugs for the medically supervised treatment of diseases has been tainted by the growing misuse of mood-altering drugs.
The very word chemicals has come to be used all too frequently in a pejorative sense. There is, as a result, a danger that the pursuit and application of chemical knowledge may be seen as bearing risks that outweigh the benefits.
The The concept of a perfect society by plato of solar energy to more concentrated, useful forms, for example, will rely heavily on discoveries in chemistry. Long-term, environmentally acceptable solutions to pollution problems are not attainable without chemical knowledge.
Progress in chemistry can no longer be measured only in terms of economics and utility. The discovery and manufacture of new chemical goods must continue to be economically feasible but must be environmentally acceptable as well.
The impact of new substances on the environment can now be assessed before large-scale production begins, and environmental compatibility has become a valued property of new materials. For example, compounds consisting of carbon fully bonded to chlorine and fluorine, called chlorofluorocarbons or Freonswere believed to be ideal for their intended use when they were first discovered.
They are nontoxic, nonflammable gases and volatile liquids that are very stable. These properties led to their widespread use as solvents, refrigerants, and propellants in aerosol containers. Time has shown, however, that these compounds decompose in the upper regions of the atmosphere and that the decomposition products act to destroy stratospheric ozone.
Limits have now been placed on the use of chlorofluorocarbons, but it is impossible to recover the amounts already dispersed into the atmosphere. The chlorofluorocarbon problem illustrates how difficult it is to anticipate the overall impact that new materials can have on the environment.
Chemists are working to develop methods of assessmentand prevailing chemical theory provides the working tools. Once a substance has been identified as hazardous to the existing ecological balance, it is the responsibility of chemists to locate that substance and neutralize it, limiting the damage it can do or removing it from the environment entirely.
The last years of the 20th century will see many new, exciting discoveries in the processes and products of chemistry.
Inevitably, the harmful effects of some substances will outweigh their benefits, and their use will have to be limited. Yet, the positive impact of chemistry on society as a whole seems beyond doubt.
Usselman The history of chemistry Chemistry has justly been called the central science. Chemists study the various substances in the world, with a particular focus on the processes by which one substance is transformed into another. Today, chemistry is defined as the study of the composition and properties of elements and compounds, the structure of their molecules, and the chemical reactions that they undergo.
Rather than starting with such modern concepts, though, a fuller appreciation of the subject requires an examination of the historical processes that led to these concepts. Philosophy of matter in antiquity Indeed, the philosophers of antiquity could have had no notion that all matter consists of the combinations of a few dozen elements as they are understood today.
The earliest critical thinking on the nature of substances, as far as the historical record indicates, was by certain Greek philosophers beginning about bce. Leucippus and Democritus propounded a materialistic theory of invisibly tiny irreducible atoms from which the world was made.
Thales of Miletus 6th century bcephilosopher, astronomer, and geometer, who was renowned as one of the Seven Wise Men of antiquity. He identified water as the original substance and basis of the universe.
Consequently, there were many different kinds of earth, for instance, and nothing precluded one element from being transformed into another by appropriate adjustment of its qualities.
Thus, Aristotle rejected the speculations of the ancient atomists and their irreducible fundamental particles. His views were highly regarded in late antiquity and remained influential throughout the Middle Ages. For thousands of years before Aristotle, metalsmiths, assayers, ceramists, and dyers had worked to perfect their crafts using empirically derived knowledge of chemical processes.
By Hellenistic and Roman times, their skills were well advanced, and sophisticated ceramics, glasses, dyes, drugs, steels, bronze, brass, alloys of gold and silver, foodstuffs, and many other chemical products were traded.
Hellenistic Alexandria in Egypt was a centre for these arts, and it was apparently there that a group of ideas emerged that later became known as alchemy. Alchemy Three different sets of ideas and skills fed into the origin of alchemy.
First was the empirical sophistication of jewelers, gold- and silversmiths, and other artisans who had learned how to fashion precious and semiprecious materials.
Among their skills were smeltingassayingalloyinggildingamalgamatingdistillingsublimatingpaintingand lacquering. The second component was the early Greek theory of matter, especially Aristotelian philosophy, which suggested the possibility of unlimited transformability of one kind of matter into another.The Open Society and Its Enemies (Routledge Classics) (Volume 29) [Karl Popper, E.H Gombrich] on monstermanfilm.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
‘If in this book harsh words are spoken about some of the greatest among the intellectual leaders of mankind. Plato was one of the first consequentialists - he believed that it is the end result that matters, not how you get there.
In his work "The Republic" he describes his version of a perfect society where he supports the Government in lying to its people in order to achieve greater happiness. The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas is a viewpoint attributed to Plato, which holds that non-physical (but substantial) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality.
When used in this sense, the word form or idea is often capitalized. Plato speaks of these entities only through the characters (primarily Socrates) of his dialogues who sometimes suggest that these Forms are the only. The meaning and concept of philosophy in Islam. Seyyed Hossein Nasr. In the light of the Qur'an and Hadith in both of which the term hikmah has been used, 1 Muslim authorities belonging to different schools of thought have sought over the ages to define the meaning of hikmah as well as falsafah, a term which entered Arabic through the .
Wikibooks Boeken op Wikibooks Wikisource Bronnen op Wikisource Wikiquote Citaten op Wikiquote Recente artikelen over Plato op de International Plato Society (en) Plato's werken op het web (en) Plato-entry op de Stanford encyclopedia of Philosophy (nl) Filosofie van Plato (nl) Plato pagina met vele dialogen als pdf downloads Voetnoten ↑ Er is een bericht bij Diogenes Laërtius, dat Plato.
The Republic (Greek: Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just city-state, and the just man.
It is Plato's best-known work, and has proven to be one of the world's most influential works of philosophy and political theory, both .